Cause and Symptoms



Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty that can cause problems with reading, writing and spelling.

It’s a specific learning difficulty, which means it causes problems with certain abilities used for learning, such as reading and writing.

Unlike a learning disability, intelligence isn’t affected.

It’s estimated up to 1 in every 10 people has some degree of dyslexia.

Dyslexia is a lifelong problem that can present challenges on a daily basis, but support is available to improve reading and writing skills and help those with the problem to be successful at school and work.

What are the symptoms of dyslexia in children aged 3-5 include:

Signs of dyslexia usually become apparent when a child starts school and begins to focus more on learning how to read and write.

A person with dyslexia may:

  1. read and write very slowly
  2. confuse the order of letters in words
  3. put letters the wrong way round (such as writing “b” instead of “d”)
  4. have poor or inconsistent spelling
  5. understand information when told verbally, but have difficulty with information that’s written down
  6. find it hard to carry out a sequence of directions
  7. struggle with planning and organization

But people with dyslexia often have good skills in other areas, such as creative thinking and problem-solving.

Symptoms of dyslexia in children aged 5 to 12 include:

  1. problems learning the names and sounds of letters
  2. spelling that’s unpredictable and inconsistent
  3. putting letters and figures the wrong way round (such as writing “6” instead of “9”, or “b” instead of “d”)
  4. confusing the order of letters in words
  5. reading slowly or making errors when reading aloud
  6. visual disturbances when reading (for example, a child may describe letters and words as seeming to move around or appear blurred)
  7. answering questions well orally, but having difficulty writing the answer down
  8. difficulty carrying out a sequence of directions
  9. struggling to learn sequences, such as days of the week or the alphabet
  10. slow writing speed
  11. poor handwriting
  12. problems copying written language and taking longer than normal to complete written work
  13. poor phonological awareness and word attack skills

Dyslexia assessments:

If there are still concerns about your child’s progress after they have received additional teaching and support, it may be a good idea to have a more in-depth assessment.

This can be carried out by an educational qualified specialist dyslexia teacher.

They’ll be able to support you, your child and your child’s teachers by helping improve the understanding of your child’s learning difficulties and suggesting interventions that may help them.

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